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What is urology?

Urology covers the treatment of problems with the urinary system – these can affect women, children and men, and in men they can also affect the reproductive system. The urinary tract is your body’s system for removing urine, which includes your kidneys, ureters and bladder.

Urologic problems range from minor urinary tract infections to more serious conditions like kidney stones, prostate cancer or bladder cancer. Some conditions can be treated quickly while others need long-term care.

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Enter a condition or symptom to filter the conditions below.


A condition in which the head of the penis becomes inflamed. Read about the signs of balanitis and how it’s treated.

Bladder stones

Bladder stones (or calculi) develop when urine remains in your bladder over time, and the chemicals start to form crystals. Find out why they happen and how they can be prevented.


Cystitis is a common urinary tract infection (UTI). It’s usually caused by our own bacteria travelling from the digestive tract to your urethra, causing your bladder to become inflamed. This is why you may feel the urge to pee a lot.


Epididymitis is when the tube at the back of the testicles (known as the epididymis) becomes swollen and painful. This is usually caused by an infection, which is normally treated with antibiotics. Find out more about the key symptoms and how it’s treated.

Erectile dysfunction

It’s common for men over the age of 40 to get erection problems from time to time. We explain what to do if it becomes an ongoing problem and where to get advice and treatment.

Kidney infection

A kidney infection is a type of urinary tract infection (UTI) that usually starts in your urethra or bladder. Find out about the symptoms and treatment.

Kidney stones

Kidney stones are hard lumps that can form in your kidneys when there’s a build-up of certain chemicals in the body. Find out about the symptoms and how they’re treated.


Phimosis is the tightening of the foreskin. This can cause pain and may need treatment such as steroid creams or surgery. Learn more about the help available

Polycystic kidney disease

People with polycystic kidney disease develop clusters of fluid-filled cysts in their kidneys. Over time, these cysts can grow, enlarging the kidneys and affecting their function. Find out more about the signs and symptoms.

Urinary tract infection (UTI)

An infection that develops in any part of the urinary system is known as a urinary tract infection (UTI). Find out about the main symptoms and what to do if you think you have a UTI.